On the other hand, in the most conservative town in Pennsylvania, Allendale, PA is in the predominantly German part of the state has hate groups nearby while the most liberal city in the state, Philadelphia, is mainly Italian but also has hate groups in the vicinity. Both the number of hate groups and the political conservatism at the state level have been correlated with poorer heath outcomes.
To determine whether there are more hate groups which are also in closer proximity to liberal or conservative towns one would need the GPS coordinates of both the groups and the towns. The average distance between the towns and the groups could be computed as well as the number of groups. This type of study could be enlightening about the spatial relationships of political ideologies. The video below describes how such a study could be done. The spatial distances could be computed for both types of town to see which has a greater spatial concentration and distance. Would liberal or conservative towns have a larger Sd?